Phobos 1 and 2 (ASPERA)

Phobos 1 and 2 were two Russian interplanetary sonds which were launched on 7 July and 12 July 1988 respectively. 

The mission hade three scientific goals and corresponding phases: investigations of the sun and interplanetary space during the cruise phase; studies of Mars and its moon Phobos from a circular orbit round Mars: and investigation of the moon Phobos from up close.

Contact with Phobos 1 was lost on 1 September 1988 and contact with Phobos 2 on 27 March 1989, just before the last phase of the mission began.

Operational period:
7 July-1 September 1988 (Phobos 1), 12 July 1988-27 March 1989 (Phobos 2).

IRF contributed the instrument ASPERA (Automatic Space Plasma Experiment with a Rotating Analyzer), an electron spectrometer and ion mass analyser. Principal investigator and responsible for the instrument was Rickard Lundin.


Created by Annelie Klint Nilsson at

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